• Section A) The theory and practise of the federal states and multi-level systems of government
  • Section B) Global governance and international organizations
  • Section C) Regional integration processes
  • Section D) Federalism as a political idea
  • Pérez Natalia Vera
    El caso de la red Encore: ¿Crisis económica o política?
    in Cuadernos Manuel Giménez Abad , Monografia n. 2, Dedicados a: Paradiplomacia en tiempos de crisis, noviembre ,  2013 ,  73-90
    The ENCORE –Environmental Conference of the Regions of Europe– was created in 1993 as a subnational political collaboration forum holding biannual Conferences, in which the environmental Regional Ministers and political representatives of the EU (European Union) regions could discuss environmental issues and establish a common position that would be addressed to the EU authorities with the aim of influencing the EU policies created in Brussels. After 20 years of life, ENCORE has evolved into a political subnational network with a full organization structure and wider objectives. The particular origin of ENCORE – an initial lobby based in a Conference that has become a full network– and its evolution, makes of ENCORE a sui generis network among its counterparts. The ENCORE currently counts with 119 member regions –those signatories of the Valencia Charter – and has the particularity of being a free and open network to all European regions. The fact that ENCORE members do not have to pay any membership fee to take part in it – an aspect that contrasts with the practice in most political subnational networks– entails that ENCORE works without a self-budget and that its activities and works (Conferences, Secretariat, hosts of Steering Group meetings etc.) are developed by means of the voluntary commitments of members regions, mainly those belonging to the Steering Group. Along the 20 years of ENCORE life, the network has had high points –with ambitious agendas and relevant results– and critical moments –inactivity of member regions that have led ENCORE to certain moments of stagnation–. It must be highlighted that, in the case of the ENCORE network, a direct relation between the irregularity of its results and the diverse global or particular economic conditions does not exist. Yet more, when trying to identify the cause of the changes in the ENCORE behaviour and results, we must look to the regional elections and eventual political changes, and mainly to the existence or inexistence of political interest and commitment, rather than to a certain economic situation. Full text available online at http://www.fundacionmgimenezabad.es/images/Documentos/Cuadernos/2_cuadernos_monografia_noviembre2013.pdf Download
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